Our best guess is that CO2-induced climate change will produce a combination of gains and losses with no strong presumption of substantial net economic damages. The struggle with the threat of greenhouse warming is likely to be a long one, and flexibility is the key to sensible policies.
Attributions of emissions due to land-use change are subject to considerable uncertainty. He is a retired geophysicist who has worked on the climate issue through his involvement with the Friends of Science group over the last few years.
With differential international standards or taxes, another set of issues concerns whether firms could employ "emissions offsets," whereby they would get credit in the high-tax regions for emissions reductions or carbon sequestration in other regions.
This graph of OLR from www. If the tax rate were harmonized among nations, then taxes on fossil fuel production would suffice as long as the production received no offsetting government subsidy.
Cold regions may gain, and hot regions may lose; investments in waterskiing will appreciate, while those in snow skiing will depreciate. These curves show the importance of a gradual phase-in and efficient design of policies.
But such a low discount rate would also imply that all investment opportunities with yields above 4 percent are exhausted--an assumption that is inconsistent with knowledge about rates of return on business and human capital in most advanced countries.
Global dimminga gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface, was observed from until at least A third approach is to identify and accelerate the myriad otherwise-sensible measures that would tend to slow global warming.
Sparse records indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early s. The most significant question concerns whether they are production or consumption taxes, and who should receive the revenues.
The global temperature standstill reverted to a global cooling trend in and the Earth has been cooling ever since, in spite of the continued increase in global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. By comparison, over the past eighty years the sea level has risen 8 to 12 cm.
Particular concerns arise where activities cannot easily migrate in response to climate change. The bottom curve shows the trade-off with a rapid phase-in and inefficient policies such as sector-by-sector regulations that double the cost of controls. Other areas are murkier from an economic point of view but might also qualify as negative-cost actions.
Climate Change and U. Countries classified by the World Bank as "low-income economies" had 31 percent of GDP produced in the agricultural sector in ; these countries hold 2. Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions.
The net absorption of radiation produces a happy result, raising the earth's temperature about 33deg.The greenhouse effect occurs when Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation because of the presence of certain gases, which causes temperatures to rise.
The Economics of Global Climate Change by Jonathan M. Harris, Putting climate change in the framework of economic analysis, we can consider greenhouse gas emissions, which cause planetary warming and other changes in The global greenhouse effect, in which the earth’s atmosphere acts like the.
Greenhouse Effect Thesis statement: Although greenhouse effect is an important naturally occurring process, human activity causes the emission of more gases into the atmosphere, which deplete the ozone layer and cause climate change. Thank you for your interest in this topic.
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This section first describes the effects of greenhouse warming upon the economy, then presents some estimates of what measures to slow greenhouse warming would cost, and finally addresses the issue of potential adaptations to greenhouse warming.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in a planet's atmosphere warm its lower atmosphere and surface.
It was proposed by Joseph Fourier indiscovered in by John Tyndall, was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius inand the hypothesis was reported in the popular press as early asDownload